Vol. 5, Issue 2, March 2018 – April 2018
Zeraye Mehari HaileDownload Complete Paper
Abstract:Salinity affects productivity of many crops including tomato. On tomato, the severity of the stress is more on seedling stage than the growth stages thereafter. As a result, knowledge on the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling establishment is therefore important to understand salt tolerance in tomato better. Hence, this study was conducted on a set of 76 tomato introgression lines and M82. Twenty seeds from each line were germinated in plates. Tap water containing 3 mM CaCl2 and 3 mM + 120 mM NaCl were used for control and salinity treatment, respectively. Ten uniformly germinated seedlings were transferred to pots filled with course quartz sand. Half-strength Hoagland solution, with or without 120 mM NaCl, was used for treatment and control, respectively, to culture the seedlings for 3 weeks under growth chamber. The result showed that salt stress affected negatively almost all of the growth parameters measured; and the effect varied depending on genotypes. No single line performed best in all parameters measured under all conditions considered. IL6-4 and IL8-3 showed superiority for germination and root growth under salinity. The rest of ILs, described as better performing ones, however, were better only in single parameter: for example IL7-2 and IL7-4-1 had very good germination under salinity but their seedling establishment (shoot and root length) was average. These introgressed segments of S. pennellii accession LA-716 genes in ILs showing tolerance to salinity are good candidate for the improvement programs of tomato for salt tolerance.Keywords:tomato, Solanum pennellii, introgression lines, salinity, germination, tolerance.
Vol. 5, Issue 2, March 2018 – April 2018
Jamiu, A.T, Bello, S.ADownload Complete Paper
Abstract: Silver is known for its antimicrobial activity, silver nanoparticles are gaining great importance due to their antimicrobial activities. “Green technology” is the use of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles, as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, terpenoids etc present in plant extracts have made them best material for the green synthesis of nanoparticles. In this study we have reported the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reducing the silver ions present in the silver nitrate solution by the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized using A. indica leaf extract and the formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak was at 437nm. The antibacterial effect of the synthesized AgNPs produced was studied using some enteric ptathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella Typhi, Pseudomonas aeuruginosa and Escherichia coli. From the disc diffusion results, the highest antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs was found against S. Typhi (14mm) and inhibitory zone of 12mm was recorded for E. coli and P. aeruginosa respectively. The synthesized AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial property compared to the AgNO3 solution and A. indica leaf extract. It could be concluded that A. indica leaf extract can be used effectively in the production of antimicrobial AgNPs for commercial applications.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Antibacterial activity, Biosynthesis, Silver nanoparticles.
Vol. 5, Issue 2, March 2018 – April 2018
Munthir Al-Zabin, Ullrich ReichenhoffDownload Complete Paper
Abstract:Meningiomas are among the commonest primary extramedullary spinal neoplasms (Broager, 1953; Lombardi and Passerini, 1961) and they are most frequently encountered in the dorsal region (Sloof, Kernohan, and McCarty, 1964).
The most common histological entities among the spinal intradural extramedullary tumors are nerve sheet tumors (neurinomas) followed by meningiomas. The spinal group of menigiomas constitute approximately for 7.5–12.7 % of all meningiomas. More than 60 % of all spinal meningiomas are located in the thoracic spine. 86–95 % of the tumors are found intradurally.
Although the frequency of meningioma among primary spinal cord tumors is 25 %. multiple spinal cord meningiomas are extremely rare. Multiple spinal cord meningiomas have not been reported in the spinal cord meningioma series of A. Davis (45 patients), K. Katz (44 patients), Lombardi and Pasarini (71patients) and by Haft and Shenkin (367patients). (1-18.104.22.168).
Walter J. Levy and his colleagues and F. Carta et al. have reported respectively two multiple spinal cord meningiomas among patients who had spinal cord meningiomas. Single cases of multiple spinal meningiomas have been described by Rand, Rath et al. and Di Rocco et al. Only Rath and his colleagues reported multiple meningiomas, which were intradural thoracic and extradural cervical. (2, 4, 8.10, 14, 19, 22, 34, 45, 48, 55, 60-61)
Meningiomas usually arise within the dura; in some cases they can extend beyond it, but are rarely extradural in toto (Rasmussen, Kemohan, and Adson, 1940). When, however, this does occur; spinal meningiomas share with other predominantly extradural neoplasms, notably neurofibromas, a tendency to extend through adjacent intervertebral foramina into the thorax (Heuer, 1929; Naffziger and Brown, 1933). According to Bull (1953) and Gautier-Smith (1967), bony radiological changes are rare with meningiomas but common with neurofibromas, thus providing a valuable criterion for their differential diagnosis. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas in different neuraxial compartments is rather rare. (12-16, 19, 33, 45, 58-61).
Comparatively similar to cranial meningiomas, the main risk factors for the spinal group are ionizing radiation, genetic predisposition, and female gender. (4-9, 11-18, 22, 60)
CT scan without and with contrast and MRI scans, including T1and T2-weighted images, with and without contrast are the usual diagnostic methods. They show spheric contrast-enhancing structures with extra- and intradural, intra- and extra-medullar localizations. The tumor matrix is typically in a lateral position. Sometimes it is difficult to differentiate meningiomas from neurinomas in the rare cases when meningiomas grow intra- and extradurally (dumbbell tumors). Distinct calcifications, which can be recognized in computed tomography, suggest a meningioma. Larger cystic areas rather indicate a neurinoma. (10, 19-23, 25-33, 56, 58-61)
The aimed treatment of spinal meningiomas is usually the total surgical excision of the tumor with assistance of neuronavigation, using of intraoperative ultrasound (for ideal tumor localization) and intraoperative neuromonitoring (for functional observation and preservation).
For the surgical intervention, a dorsal approach is preferred, except for few cases, in which sometimes lateral extension is indicated by partial resection of the facettal joint or the head of rib in the region of the thoracic spine.
Postoperatively, the majority of patients have satisfactory outcomes. Advances in radiologic and surgical techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraoperative ultrasound, evoked responses, ultrasonic aspirators and lasers have brought about better clinical results. However, the meningioma may re-occur, especially as a result of incomplete resection. The goal of surgical treatment must be total resection ,if possible. Total resection of a spinal meningioma is usually possible, but if the tumor is ventral to the cord and calciﬁed, surgery becomes hazardous and may damage the cord. The operative and long-term mortality rates of spinal meningioma have decreased recently. (24, 34-44, 57, 59, 61)
The purpose of this article is an update of this disease based on a literature review and the own experience with case illustration. Additionally, the most recent own consecutive case series is collected and presented between 2008 and 2012.