Abstract: Gas chromatography system equipped with a mass selective detector was employed for chemical fingerprinting of two Niger Delta crude oils (samples A-001 and F-100) and their mixtures (samples B-208, C-406, D-604 and E-802) at different proportion. Total and individual abundances of C19 to C29 tricyclic terpanes, including C24 tetracyclic terpane, detected in the six oil samples followed similar patterns, A-001 < E-802 < F-100 < B-208 < C-406 < D-604, indicating the abundances did not mix correspondingly with the proportion of the two Niger Delta crude oils. Pearson correlation suggested sample A-001 was genetically related to sample F-100 (76.03%), and the four mixtures were significantly similar to each other (99.00% - 99.90%) and sample F-100 (99.00% - 99.81%), and similar to sample A-001 (76.02% - 81.60%). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the tricyclic and tetracyclic terpanes detected into 2 main groups, which distinctly differed (strong negative correlation) in the variations of their compositions in the six crude oil samples. Plots show the compositions of HCA group-A and -B tricyclic terpanes decrease as the proportion of sample A-001 decrease, and increase as the proportion of sample F-100 increase in the six crude oil samples, respectively. Values of the coefficient of determination (R²) for the tricyclic terpane plots, range from 0.1406 to 0.9113 for group-A and 0.1226 to 0.6081 for group-B, with the compositions of C21 tricyclic terpane(d) being most suitable for use to estimate (91.13%) the proportion(s) of the two Niger Delta crude oils in their mixtures.
Abstract: While biodiversity is critical for financial activity, it is under attack worldwide, and its capacity to keep providing the commodities and services necessary for socioeconomic development is eroding. Globally, the ramifications of this have been summarized in a landmark study — the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). It emphasizes that people have altered the natural environment in unprecedented ways over the last several decades to fulfill expanding needs for food, fresh water, fiber, and energy, and that this requirement will only expand as the world’s population expands and spending habits shift (UNEP FI Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services Work Stream (BESW), 2008).
Keywords: ecosystem services, biodiversity, global sustainability, environmental policy, climate change, ecosystem processes, human well-being, legal risks, pressures, diversification.
Title: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability
Author: Nikolaos N. Toumasis
International Journal of Novel Research in Civil Structural and Earth Sciences