Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine, among other objectives, if the beneficiary community is involved in development in various stages of the project as a parameter of participation in the community driven development approach. The study design was an ex-post facto cross-sectional survey, which used non-random sampling technique (quota), and both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The sample size for individual interviews was 90 (N=90) and 47 (N=47) for the focus group interviews. The study established that some segments of the community especially the youth and opinion leaders’ involvement in the various stages of the project is low, denoting exclusion and that there is fluctuating beneficiary community involvement in the various stages of the project. Further, the study found out that it is mainly women who are involved in most project activities, a situation which could be attributed to the fact that project activities also meet and respond to needs directly associated with women. Also project activities have time and opportunity costs that are not consistent with men, youth, opinion leaders and local elites direct needs. The implications of the study is that funders, development agencies, practitioners, stakeholders and proponents of participatory development approaches ought to device mechanisms of enlisting more beneficiary community involvement in development processes, discourses and activities as well as mainstreaming of community involvement in all the stages of the project cycle.
Keywords: Approach, Beneficiary, Community Driven, Development, Involvement, Participation, Project, Stages. Title: Community Involvement: Who Sits on Which Wheels in the Community Driven Development Approach Author: Rebecca Waweru ISSN 2394-9694 International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social Sciences Novelty Journals
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to evaluate the relationship between earning per share (EPS) and bank’s profitability in Pakistan. The data of the study was collected from annual financial statements of 13 commercial banks working in Pakistan covering the period of 7 years from 2007 to 2013. Pearson Correlation has been used to find the relationship and simple regression method has been employed to evaluate the impact of earning per Share (EPS) on bank’s profitability. All hypotheses mentioned in the study were accepted. Findings revealed that all independent variables have strong relationship between dependent variable.
Keywords: Earnings per Share (EPS), Firm Performance. Title: Relationship between Earning Per Share & Bank Profitability, A Study of Medium & Large commercial Banks in Pakistan: 2007-2013 Author: JAGIRANI TAHIR SAEED, JAGIRANI HIRA TAHIR ISSN 2394-9694 International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social Sciences Novelty Journals
Abstract: Argumentative thought experiments are structurally conditional clauses. They can hence be formalized by means of the principle of modus ponendo ponens, as well as of modus tollendo tollens. In contrast to the practice in formal logic, exponents of argumentative thought experiments claim that the logical validity of a conclusion drawn within the framework of a particular conditional argument also holds beyond the particular conditional in question. In this paper, I articulate the criticism that this claim is wrong by arguing that the counterfactual scenario sets itself the most determinant premise. If the counterfactual scenario sets the initial conditional premise of the argument, then its true conclusion holds only as a counterfactual truth. The present paper illustrates this criticism using Frank Jackson’s thought experiment, the so-called knowledge argument, as a concrete example.
Keywords: thought experiments; counterfactual scenario; truth; knowledge argument; Frank Jackson; modus ponendo ponens; modus tollendo tollens; validity; valuation. Title: Counterfactual Truths: The Logical Structure of Argumentative Thought Experiments Author: Javier Y. Álvarez-Vázquez ISSN 2394-9694 International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social Sciences Novelty Journals