Abstract: Childhood mortality is a core indicator for child health and well-being, and useful for the calculation of overall mortality, as the highest risk of death and proportion of deaths occurs during childhood. It is also, an important demographic, health and development issue for a number of reasons. As well infant and child mortality rates are basic indicators of a country’s socioeconomic situation and quality of life. This research has the overall objectives of describing the levels and trends of under-five mortality between 1990 and 2016, and to assess the progress of MDG4 looking back 15 years at the trends and positive forces during the MDG era in Ethiopia, mainly based on data from the 2000, 2005, 2011 and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys. The results from the level and trend analysis indicated that all the five childhood mortality indicators (under-five, child, infant, neonatal and postnatal mortality) have been steadily declining over the last two decades. For instance, under-five mortality has shown a continuous reduction over time; from 198 deaths per 1000 in 1990 had declined to 67 deaths per 1000 in 2016. As a result, Ethiopia had 67 percent reduction of deaths in under five-children with an average annual rate of decline of 5.0 percent between 1990 and 2015. This exceeded the 4.3 percent annual rate of decline needed to reach Millennium Development Goal-4 (MDG4). Therefore, the progress decline rate indicated that Ethiopia had been achieved MDG4 to gains in improving child survival. However, the contribution of neonatal mortality to infant mortality at national level has increased over time. In order to continue to accelerate progress and to achieve Sustainable Development Goals SDGs (target 3.2), it is critical to ensure that every pregnant woman and every newborn has access to and receives good quality care and life-saving interventions.
Keywords:Ethiopia, Under-Five Mortality, Trends, Childhood Mortality. Title:Analysis of the Levels and Trends in Infant and Under-Five Mortality in Ethiopia Author:Nuredin Nassir Azmach, Temam Abrar Hamza ISSN 2394-966X International Journal of Novel Research in Life Sciences Novelty Journals
Abstract:The study was conducted in Arba Minch University, Abaya Campus, on liquid waste contaminated soils. The objective of our study is to isolate and characterize rhizobacteria from Rhizosphere soil contaminated with liquid waste and its associated risk factor on the health of students. The data was collected by using observational check list and Questioners. The samples were collected by using purposive sampling techniques. A total of 3 samples were collected from contaminated rhizosphere by liquid waste, the result obtained revealed that the mean bacterial count from the total sample was 167250 cfu/ml. there was a significance difference of microbial load between nutrient agar ,MacConkey agar and mannitol salt agar. Total 183 colonies were counted; from them staphylococcus and streptobacillus were isolated randomly and characterized by using Biochemical test. The contaminated soil sample has Gram negative bacteria. The data which is collected from questionnaires and observational checklist showed that improper disposal of liquid waste was nearer to the female student dormitory, that cause communicable diseases on the health of the students so the college should take serious action to treat the waste to minimize the risk.
Keywords:bacteria, sample, soil, rhizosphere, rhizobacteria, waste. Title:Isolation and Characterization of Rhizobacteria from Rhizosphere Soil Contaminated with Liquid Waste in Arba Minch University Abaya Campus Author:Sileshi Shiferaw ISSN 2394-966X International Journal of Novel Research in Life Sciences Novelty Journals